Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering ›› 2021, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (4): 416-422.doi: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.09.055

• Energy, Resources and Environmental Technology • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Porous nitrogen-enriched hollow carbon nanofibers as freestanding electrode for enhanced lithium storage

Xiaosa Xu1, Yuqian Qiu1, Jianping Wu1, Baichuan Ding1, Qianhui Liu1, Guangshen Jiang1, Qiongqiong Lu2, Jiangan Wang1, Fei Xu1, Hongqiang Wang1   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Center for Nano Energy Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University and Shaanxi Joint Laboratory of Graphene(NPU), Xi'an 710072, China;
    2 Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research(IFW) Dresden e. V., Helmholtzstr 20, 01069 Dresden, Germany
  • Received:2020-05-23 Revised:2020-08-05 Online:2021-04-28 Published:2021-06-19
  • Contact: Fei Xu, Hongqiang Wang;
  • Supported by:
    This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51972270, 51702262, 51911530212, 51872240, 51672225, 61805201), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2018T111093, 2018M643732, 2018BSHYDZZ57), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province (2020JZ-07), the Key Research and Development Program of Shaanxi Province (2019TSLGY07-03), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (3102019JC005 and 3102019ghxm004), and the Research Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing (NPU), China (2019-QZ-03). H. Wang acknowledges support from the 1000 Youth Talent Program of China. We would like to thank the Analytical & Testing Center of Northwestern Polytechnical University for XPS and TEM characterizations.

Abstract: One-dimensional porous carbons bearing high surface areas and sufficient heteroatom doped functionalities are essential for advanced electrochemical energy storage devices, especially for developing freestanding film electrodes. Here we develop a porous, nitrogen-enriched, freestanding hollow carbon nanofiber (PN-FHCF) electrode material via filtration of polypyrrole (PPy) hollow nanofibers formed by in situ self-degraded template-assisted strategy, followed by NH3-assisted carbonization. The PN-FHCF retains the freestanding film morphology that is composed of three-dimensional networks from the entanglement of 1D nanofiber and delivers 3.7-fold increase in specific surface area (592 m2·g-1) compared to the carbon without NH3 treatment (FHCF). In spite of the enhanced specific surface area, PNFHCF still exhibits comparable high content of surface N functionalities (8.8%, atom fraction) to FHCF. Such developed hierarchical porous structure without sacrificing N doping functionalities together enables the achievement of high capacity, high-rate property and good cycling stability when applied as self-supporting anode in lithium-ion batteries, superior to those of FHCF without NH3 treatment.

Key words: Energy, Electrochemistry, Nanomaterials, Hollow carbon nanofibers, Freestanding electrode, Lithium-ion batteries