Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (2): 291-300.doi: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.11.012

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Recent advances in systemic and local delivery of ginsenosides using nanoparticles and nanofibers

Jing Zhao1,2,3, Zhiguang Duan1,2,3, Xiaoxuan Ma1,2,3, Yannan Liu1,2,3, Daidi Fan1,2,3   

  1. 1 Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China;
    2 Shaanxi R&D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China;
    3 Biotech. &Biomed. Research Institute, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China
  • Received:2020-10-15 Revised:2020-11-18 Online:2021-02-28 Published:2021-05-15
  • Contact: Daidi Fan
  • Supported by:
    This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 22078264, 21978235, 21776227 and 21706211), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2019JQ259), and North west University Graduate Innovation Project (Grant No. YZZ17128).

Abstract: Ginsenosides are the main pharmacologically active constituents of ginseng which have been used in East Asian countries for centuries to modulate blood pressure, metabolism and immune function. Following the technological advances in isolation, purification and mass production, their mechanisms of action are gradually elucidated, providing solid basis for clinical applications. Ginseng extracts (total ginsenosides) and ginsenoside Rg3, CK, Rd have been marketed or entered clinical trials as drugs or dietary supplements. Despite the proven safety and efficacy of some ginsenosides, their applications are hindered by inferior pharmacokinetics such as low solubility, poor membrane permeability and metabolic instability. Nanoparticle formulation of drugs and implantable drug depots are effective strategies to improve the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic agents by enhancing solubility, providing protection, facilitating intracellular transport, and enabling sustained and controlled release. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in systemic delivery of ginsenosides using liposomes, micelles, albumin-based nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles, as well as local delivery of ginsenosides by electronspun fibrous membranes and hydrogels.

Key words: Ginsenosides, Nanoparticles, Nanofibers, Drug delivery