Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering ›› 2021, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (4): 281-290.doi: 10.1016/j.cjche.2020.09.070

• Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics • Previous Articles     Next Articles

High surface area and mesoporous activated carbon from KOH-activated dragon fruit peels for methylene blue dye adsorption: Optimization and mechanism study

Ali H. Jawad1, Ahmed Saud Abdulhameed2, Lee D. Wilson3, Syed Shatir A. Syed-Hassan4, Zeid A. ALOthman5, Mohammad Rizwan Khan5   

  1. 1 Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia;
    2 Department of Medical Instrumentation Engineering, Al-Mansour University College, Baghdad, Iraq;
    3 Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5C9 Canada;
    4 Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia;
    5 Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
  • Received:2020-03-27 Revised:2020-09-01 Online:2021-04-28 Published:2021-06-19
  • Contact: Ali H. Jawad,
  • Supported by:
    The authors would like to thank the Universiti Teknologi MARA, Institute of Research Management and Innovation (Institut Pengurusan Penyelidikan & Inovasi) for funding this project underLESTARI grant (600-IRMI 5/3/LESTARI (037/2019)). The authors Zeid A. ALOthman and Mohammad Rizwan Khan are thankful to the Researchers Supporting Project (RSP-2020/138), King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract: In this study, an alternative precursor for production of activated carbon was introduced using dragon fruit (Hylocereus costaricensis) peel (DFP). Moreover, KOH was used as a chemical activator in the thermal carbonization process to convert DFP into activated carbon (DFPAC). In order to accomplish this research, several approaches were employed to examine the elemental composition, surface properties, amorphous and crystalline nature, essential active group, and surface morphology of the DFPAC. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller test demonstrated a mesoporous structure of the DFPAC has a high surface area of 756.3 m2·g-1. The cationic dye Methylene Blue (MB) was used as a probe to assess the efficiency of DFPAC towards the removal of MB dye from aqueous solution. The effects of adsorption input factors (e.g. DFPAC dose (A:0.04-0.12 g·g-1), pH (B:3-10), and temperature (C:30-50℃)) were investigated and optimized using statistical analysis (i.e. Box-Behnken design (BBD)). The adsorption kinetic model can be best categorized as the pseudo-first order (PFO). Whereas, the adsorption isotherm model can be best described by Langmuir model, with maximum adsorption capacity of DFPAC for MB dye was 195.2 mg·g-1 at 50℃. The adsorption mechanism of MB by DFPAC surface was attributed to the electrostatic interaction, p-p interaction, and H-bonding. Finally, the results support the ability of DFP to be a promising precursor for production of highly porous activated carbon suitable for removal of cationic dyes (e.g. MB).

Key words: Statistical modeling, Activated carbon, Dragon fruit peels, Box-Behnken design, Methylene blue dye, Adsorption