Qiang Sun1, Jinlei Wang1, Xue Meng1, Jie Zhang1,2, Hong Yan1,2
Qiang Sun1, Jinlei Wang1, Xue Meng1, Jie Zhang1,2, Hong Yan1,2
|  F.L. Jin, X. Li, S.J. Park, Synthesis and application of epoxy resins: A review, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 29 (2015) 1–11.
 X.W. Li, Q.Y. Yu, X. Chen, Q.X. Zhang, Microstructures and electrochemical behaviors of casting magnesium alloys with enhanced compression strengths and decomposition rates, J. Magnes. Alloys (2021) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jma.2021.07.018
 X.W. Li, J.S. Liang, T. Shi, D.N. Yang, X.C. Chen, C.W. Zhang, Z.H. Liu, D.Z. Liu, Q.X. Zhang, Tribological behaviors of vacuum hot-pressed ceramic composites with enhanced cyclic oxidation and corrosion resistance, Ceram. Int. 46 (9) (2020) 12911–12920.
 M. Rajaei, N.K. Kim, S. Bickerton, D. Bhattacharyya, A comparative study on effects of natural and synthesised nano-clays on the fire and mechanical properties of epoxy composites, Compos. B Eng. 165 (2019) 65–74.
 S.Q. Huo, S. Yang, J. Wang, J.W. Cheng, Q.Q. Zhang, Y.F. Hu, G.P. Ding, Q.X. Zhang, P.G. Song, A liquid phosphorus-containing imidazole derivative as flame-retardant curing agent for epoxy resin with enhanced thermal latency, mechanical, and flame-retardant performances, J Hazard Mater 386 (2020) 121984.
 Q.Y. Liu, D.H. Wang, Z.K. Li, Z.F. Li, X.L. Peng, C.B. Liu, Y. Zhang, P.L. Zheng, Recent developments in the flame-retardant system of epoxy resin, Materials 13 (9) (2020) 2145.
 C. Ma, S.L. Qiu, B. Yu, J.L. Wang, C.M. Wang, W.R. Zeng, Y. Hu, Economical and environment-friendly synthesis of a novel hyperbranched poly(aminomethylphosphine oxide-amine) as co-curing agent for simultaneous improvement of fire safety, glass transition temperature and toughness of epoxy resins, Chem. Eng. J. 322 (2017) 618–631.
 J. Alongi, Z.D. Han, S. Bourbigot, Intumescence: Tradition versus novelty. A comprehensive review, Prog. Polym. Sci. 51 (2015) 28–73.
 H. Kim, J.W. Park, H.J. Kim, Flame retardant nano-composites containing nano-fillers (in science and applications of tailored nanostructures), One Central Press, (2017).
 H.L. Qin, S.M. Zhang, C.G. Zhao, G.J. Hu, M.S. Yang, Flame retardant mechanism of polymer/clay nanocomposites based on polypropylene, Polymer 46 (19) (2005) 8386–8395.
 M.L. Du, B.C. Guo, D.M. Jia, Thermal stability and flame retardant effects of halloysite nanotubes on poly(propylene), Eur. Polym. J. 42 (6) (2006) 1362–1369.
 A. Kausar, I. Rafique, B. Muhammad, Significance of carbon nanotube in flame-retardant polymer/CNT composite: a review, Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng. 56 (5) (2017) 470–487.
 B. Sang, Z.W. Li, X.H. Li, L.G. Yu, Z.J. Zhang, Graphene-based flame retardants: a review, J. Mater. Sci. 51 (18) (2016) 8271–8295.
 S. Bourbigot, S. Duquesne, Fire retardant polymers: recent developments and opportunities, J. Mater. Chem. 17 (22) (2007) 2283.
 M.M. Velencoso, A. Battig, J.C. Markwart, B. Schartel, F.R. Wurm, Molecular firefighting-how modern phosphorus chemistry can help solve the challenge of flame retardancy, Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 57 (33) (2018) 10450–10467.
 S.Q. Huo, P.G. Song, B. Yu, S.Y. Ran, V.S. Chevali, L. Liu, Z.P. Fang, H. Wang, Phosphorus-containing flame retardant epoxy thermosets: recent advances and future perspectives, Prog. Polym. Sci. 114 (2021) 101366.
 T. Liu, J. Jing, Y. Zhang, Z.P. Fang, Synthesis of a novel polyphosphate and its application with APP in flame retardant PLA, RSC Adv. 8 (8) (2018) 4483–4493.
 A.B. Morgan, The future of flame retardant polymers–unmet needs and likely new approaches, Polym. Rev. 59 (1) (2019) 25–54.
 X.L. Li, F.H. Zhang, R.K. Jian, Y.F. Ai, J.L. Ma, G.J. Hui, D.Y. Wang, Influence of eco-friendly calcium gluconate on the intumescent flame-retardant epoxy resin: flame retardancy, smoke suppression and mechanical properties, Compos. B Eng. 176 (2019) 107200.
 H.Y. Ren, K.L. Qing, Y. Chen, Y.J. Lin, X. Duan, Smoke suppressant in flame retarded thermoplastic polyurethane composites: Synergistic effect and mechanism study, Nano Res. 14 (11) (2021) 3926–3934.
 M. Rajaei, D.Y. Wang, D. Bhattacharyya, Combined effects of ammonium polyphosphate and talc on the fire and mechanical properties of epoxy/glass fabric composites, Compos. B Eng. 113 (2017) 381–390.
 S.L. Qiu, C. Ma, X. Wang, X. Zhou, X.M. Feng, R.K.K. Yuen, Y. Hu, Melamine-containing polyphosphazene wrapped ammonium polyphosphate: a novel multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid flame retardant, J Hazard Mater 344 (2018) 839–848.
 M. Gao, S. Chen, H. Wang, Z.H. Chai, Design, preparation, and application of a novel, microencapsulated, intumescent, flame-retardant-based mimicking mussel, ACS Omega 3 (6) (2018) 6888–6894.
 M. Kim, H. Ko, S.M. Park, Synergistic effects of amine-modified ammonium polyphosphate on curing behaviors and flame retardation properties of epoxy composites, Compos. B Eng. 170 (2019) 19–30.
 W.T. He, P.G. Song, B. Yu, Z.P. Fang, H. Wang, Flame retardant polymeric nanocomposites through the combination of nanomaterials and conventional flame retardants, Prog. Mater. Sci. 114 (2020) 100687.
 C.J. Shuai, L. Yu, P. Feng, C.D. Gao, S.P. Peng, Interfacial reinforcement in bioceramic/biopolymer composite bone scaffold: the role of coupling agent, Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 193 (2020) 111083.
 F. Ahangaran, A.H. Navarchian, Recent advances in chemical surface modification of metal oxide nanoparticles with silane coupling agents: a review, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 286 (2020) 102298.
 S. Kango, S. Kalia, A. Celli, J. Njuguna, Y. Habibi, R. Kumar, Surface modification of inorganic nanoparticles for development of organic-inorganic nanocomposites—A review, Prog. Polym. Sci. 38 (8) (2013) 1232–1261.
 H.J. Lin, H. Yan, B. Liu, L.Q. Wei, B.S. Xu, The influence of KH-550 on properties of ammonium polyphosphate and polypropylene flame retardant composites, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 96 (7) (2011) 1382–1388.
 Y.P. Sheng, Y.C. Wu, Y. Yan, H.C. Jia, Y.Y. Qiao, B.S. Underwood, D.Y. Niu, Y.R. Kim, Development of environmentally friendly flame retardant to achieve low flammability for asphalt binder used in tunnel pavements, J. Clean. Prod. 257 (2020) 120487.
 G.S. Liu, W.Y. Chen, J.G. Yu, A novel process to prepare ammonium polyphosphate with crystalline form II and its comparison with melamine polyphosphate, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 49 (23) (2010) 12148–12155.
 Y.J. Xie, C.A.S. Hill, Z.F. Xiao, H. Militz, C. Mai, Silane coupling agents used for natural fiber/polymer composites: a review, Compos. A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 41 (7) (2010) 806–819.
 Y. Tan, Z.B. Shao, L.X. Yu, J.W. Long, M. Qi, L. Chen, Y.Z. Wang, Piperazine-modified ammonium polyphosphate as monocomponent flame-retardant hardener for epoxy resin: flame retardance, curing behavior and mechanical property, Polym. Chem. 7 (17) (2016) 3003–3012.
 L.B. Liu, Y. Xu, M.J. Xu, Z.Q. Li, Y.M. Hu, B. Li, Economical and facile synthesis of a highly efficient flame retardant for simultaneous improvement of fire retardancy, smoke suppression and moisture resistance of epoxy resins, Compos. B Eng. 167 (2019) 422–433.
 Y. Tan, Z.B. Shao, X.F. Chen, J.W. Long, L. Chen, Y.Z. Wang, Novel multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid curing agent with high flame-retardant efficiency for epoxy resin, ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7 (32) (2015) 17919–17928.
 Z.B. Shao, C. Deng, Y. Tan, L. Yu, M.J. Chen, L. Chen, Y.Z. Wang, Ammonium polyphosphate chemically-modified with ethanolamine as an efficient intumescent flame retardant for polypropylene, J. Mater. Chem. A 2 (34) (2014) 13955.
 A.P. Hinckley, A.J. Muscat, Modified organosilane monolayers with enhanced radiation stability, Langmuir 36 (15) (2020) 4116–4122.
 M.H. Zhu, L. Liu, Z.Z. Wang, Mesoporous silica via self-assembly of nano zinc amino-tris-(methylenephosphonate) exhibiting reduced fire hazards and improved impact toughness in epoxy resin, J. Hazard. Mater. 392 (2020) 122343.
 Z.D. Zhang, J.Y. Qin, W.C. Zhang, Y.T. Pan, D.Y. Wang, R.J. Yang, Synthesis of a novel dual layered double hydroxide hybrid nanomaterial and its application in epoxy nanocomposites, Chem. Eng. J. 381 (2020) 122777.
 F. Fang, S.Y. Ran, Z.P. Fang, P.G. Song, H. Wang, Improved flame resistance and thermo-mechanical properties of epoxy resin nanocomposites from functionalized graphene oxide via self-assembly in water, Compos. B Eng. 165 (2019) 406–416.
 H.F. Pan, W. Wang, Y. Pan, L. Song, Y. Hu, K.M. Liew, Formation of layer-by-layer assembled titanate nanotubes filled coating on flexible polyurethane foam with improved flame retardant and smoke suppression properties, ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7 (1) (2015) 101–111.
 Y.W. Yan, L. Chen, R.K. Jian, S. Kong, Y.Z. Wang, Intumescence: an effect way to flame retardance and smoke suppression for polystryene, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 97 (8) (2012) 1423–1431.
 Z. Li, A.J. González, V.B. Heeralal, D.Y. Wang, Covalent assembly of MCM-41 nanospheres on graphene oxide for improving fire retardancy and mechanical property of epoxy resin, Compos. B Eng. 138 (2018) 101–112.
 L. Costes, F. Laoutid, S. Brohez, P. Dubois, Bio-based flame retardants: when nature meets fire protection, Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 117 (2017) 1–25.
 S.Q. Huo, S. Yang, J. Wang, J.W. Cheng, Q.Q. Zhang, Y.F. Hu, G.P. Ding, Q.X. Zhang, P.G. Song, H. Wang, A liquid phosphaphenanthrene-derived imidazole for improved flame retardancy and smoke suppression of epoxy resin, ACS Appl. Polym. Mater. 2 (8) (2020) 3566–3575.
 S. Yang, S.Q. Huo, J. Wang, B. Zhang, J.S. Wang, S.Y. Ran, Z.P. Fang, P.G. Song, H. Wang, A highly fire-safe and smoke-suppressive single-component epoxy resin with switchable curing temperature and rapid curing rate, Compos. B Eng. 207 (2021) 108601.
 J. Hong, T. Wu, H.Y. Wu, B.R. Zeng, S.N. Zeng, T. Chen, X. Wang, Z.W. Lu, C.H. Yuan, K. Balaji, D.F.S. Petri, L.Z. Dai, Nanohybrid silver nanoparticles@halloysite nanotubes coated with polyphosphazene for effectively enhancing the fire safety of epoxy resin, Chem. Eng. J. 407 (2021) 127087.
 F. Tuinstra, J.L. Koenig, Raman spectrum of graphite, J. Chem. Phys. 53 (3) (1970) 1126–1130.
 Z.L. Zhao, Q. Jin, N.E. Zhang, X.R. Guo, H. Yan, Preparation of a novel polysiloxane and its synergistic effect with ammonium polyphosphate on the flame retardancy of polypropylene, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 150 (2018) 73–85.
 X.S. Li, Z.L. Zhao, Y.H. Wang, H. Yan, X.Y. Zhang, B.S. Xu, Highly efficient flame retardant, flexible, and strong adhesive intumescent coating on polypropylene using hyperbranched polyamide, Chem. Eng. J. 324 (2017) 237–250.
 E. Desimoni, G.I. Casella, A.M. Salvi, T.R.I. Cataldi, A. Morone, XPS investigation of ultra-high-vacuum storage effects on carbon fibre surfaces, Carbon 30 (4) (1992) 527–531.
 W.C. Zhang, X.M. Li, R.J. Yang, Pyrolysis and fire behaviour of epoxy resin composites based on a phosphorus-containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (DOPO-POSS), Polym. Degrad. Stab. 96 (10) (2011) 1821–1832.
 W.C. Zhang, X.M. Li, H.B. Fan, R.J. Yang, Study on mechanism of phosphorus-silicon synergistic flame retardancy on epoxy resins, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 97 (11) (2012) 2241–2248.
 M.S. Donley, D.R. Baer, T.G. Stoebe, Nitrogen 1s charge referencing for Si3N4 and related compounds, Surf. Interface Anal. 11 (6–7) (1988) 335–340.
 N.E. Zhang, J. Zhang, H. Yan, X.R. Guo, Q. Sun, R.J. Guo, A novel organic-inorganic hybrid K-HBPE@APP performing excellent flame retardancy and smoke suppression for polypropylene, J Hazard Mater 373 (2019) 856–865.
 S.A. Kaluzhina, I.V. Sieber, Copper passivity and its breakdown in sodium bicarbonate solutions: a scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron and auger spectroscopy study, Russ. J. Electrochem. 42 (12) (2006) 1352–1357.
 Y.A. Guloyan, Colored glass: technological and operational characteristics (review), Glass Ceram. 72 (9–10) (2016) 353–359.
 D.X. Liang, X.J. Zhu, P. Dai, X.Y. Lu, H.Q. Guo, H. Que, D.D. Wang, T. He, C.Z. Xu, H.M. Robin, Z.Y. Luo, X.L. Gu, Preparation of a novel lignin-based flame retardant for epoxy resin, Mater. Chem. Phys. 259 (2021) 124101.
 X.L. Hu, Y. Wang, J.R. Yu, J. Zhu, Z.M. Hu, Synthesis of a deoxybenzoin derivative and its use as a flame retardant in poly(trimethylene terephthalate), J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 135 (8) (2018) 45904.
 L.J. Li, Y.J. Chen, L.J. Qian, B. Xu, W. Xi, Addition flame-retardant effect of nonreactive phosphonate and expandable graphite in rigid polyurethane foams, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 135 (10) (2018) 45960.
 L.J. Chen, L. Song, P. Lv, G.X. Jie, Q.L. Tai, W.Y. Xing, Y. Hu, A new intumescent flame retardant containing phosphorus and nitrogen: Preparation, thermal properties and application to UV curable coating, Prog. Org. Coat. 70 (1) (2011) 59–66.
 S.L. Qiu, X. Wang, B. Yu, X.M. Feng, X.W. Mu, R.K.K. Yuen, Y. Hu, Flame-retardant-wrapped polyphosphazene nanotubes: a novel strategy for enhancing the flame retardancy and smoke toxicity suppression of epoxy resins, J Hazard Mater 325 (2017) 327–339.
 S.L. Qiu, W.Y. Xing, X.M. Feng, B. Yu, X.W. Mu, R.K.K. Yuen, Y. Hu, Self-standing cuprous oxide nanoparticles on silica@ polyphosphazene nanospheres: 3D nanostructure for enhancing the flame retardancy and toxic effluents elimination of epoxy resins via synergistic catalytic effect, Chem. Eng. J. 309 (2017) 802–814.
 P. Wang, Z.S. Cai, Highly efficient flame-retardant epoxy resin with a novel DOPO-based triazole compound: thermal stability, flame retardancy and mechanism, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 137 (2017) 138–150
|||Dehua Xu, Benhe Zhong, Xinlong Wang, Xue Li, Yanjun Zhong, Zhengjuan Yan, Jingxu Yang, Xiaobin Li, Yumei Wang, Xiaohou Zhou. The development road of ammonium phosphate fertilizer in China [J]. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2022, 41(1): 170-175.|
|||Shouwu Yu, Shujuan Xiao, Zewen Zhao, Xiaowen Huo, Junfu Wei. Microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate by polyurethane with segment of dipentaerythritol and its application in flame retardant polypropylene [J]. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2019, 27(7): 1735-1743.|
|||Peihua Zhao, Kuankuan Xiong, Wentao Wang, Yaqing Liu. Preparation of a halogen-free P/N/Si flame retardant monomer with reactive siloxy groups and its application in cotton fabrics [J]. , 2017, 25(9): 1322-1328.|
|||RENHui(任慧),QUYixin(屈一新)andZHAOSuhe(赵素合). Reinforcement of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber with Silica Modified by Silane Coupling Agents Experimental and Theoretical Chemistry Study [J]. , 2006, 14(1): 93-98.|